I have recently started re-reading The Golden Compass. Here are the significant differences between the book and television show that I have found so far:
1. In the first book, Lyra Belacqua doesn’t want to leave Jordan college. She has a happy life playing “war” with the fellow children within Oxford University and Oxford the town. Lyra has many friends. In the television series His Dark Materials, Lyra’s best friend is Roger, and she wishes to explore the world.
2. Lyra calls her daemon Pantalamion in the novels. She usually calls her daemon Pan within the television series.
3. King of the Gyptians John Faa and Fader Coram don’t join the Gyptians in Oxford right away. The Gyptians all meet up in London. The king and his advisor seem to live away from Oxford in the book. While in the television series, the king and Fader Coram appear to live in Oxford.
4. So far, The Golden Compass appears to be entirely in Lyra Belacqua’s point of view. His Dark Materials Season 1 jumps around different characters’ points of view.
5. There is no mention of mention the “scholastic sanctuary in the first couple of chapters of the book.” The pilot episode reveals that the scholastic sanctuary is the reason why Lord Asriel dropped Lyra in Jordan College as a baby.
6. In The Golden Compass, Lyra talks to Lord Boreal during Mrs. Coulter’s party while in the television series they have not yet met.
7. John Faa is the one who tells Lyra the true identity of her parents. In the first season of the television series, Ma Costa is the one who lets her know that Lord Asriel is her father, and Mrs. Coulter is her mother.
8. Turk traders try to capture Lyra and Pan in the book. The Gobblers briefly kidnap Lyra before Tony Costa, and his friends rescue her in His Dark Materials Season 1.
9. In the books, Mrs. Coulter gently hypnotizes the children to capture them. The television series shows Billy Costa violently kidnapped by a man.
10. In the book, the Gobbler had been interrogated before Lyra arrived on the Gyptians’ boats. In the televisions series, the Gyptians capture the Gobbler when they rescue Lyra.The Gobbler also doesn’t give away any information while in the book he does.
11. Lyra doesn’t mention Roger being kidnapped by the Gobblers when she agrees to go off with Mrs. Coulter. In the first episode, when they meet, Lyra begs her new guardian to help her find her friend. It’s because of Roger that Lyra stays with Mrs. Coulter as long as she does in His Dark Materials. In The Golden Compass, Lyra behaves so she can go to the Arctic.